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A personal memory. Maria Cardarelli Puzzanghero:

Copyright: Maria Cardarelli Puzzanghero

Emidio Lamboglia interviews with Anna Pizzuti: what documents tell about the story of foreign Jews interned in Italy. Copyright L’Eco Channel (In Italian)


(1) Following the Evian conference, Brazil had joined the list of countries that would provide visas to Jews from German-controlled areas. Brazilian immigration quotas were based on nationality and not on religion with the exception of the 3,000 visas granted under the auspices of the Vatican. These were available only to Jews who had converted to Catholicism. See also:

John Morley, Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews During the Holocaust, 1980

Avraham Milgram, Os Judeos do Vaticano, 1994

Jeffrey H. Lesser: Welcoming the Undesirables - Brazil and the Jewish Question, 1995


Carlo Spartaco Capogreco

I campi del duce

L'internamento civile nell'Italia fascista (1940-1943)

Italy divided: the Gustav Line marking the border if the Italian Social Republic